my emails are:-
roger.alexander3@ntlworld.com
roger@pipeline-corrosion-control.com




This copy of the CPN White Paper is registered to xxxxxxxxxxxxxx


NACE stands for National Association of Corrosion Engineers but it is not an association, it is a profit making company and cannot be legally registered in the United Kingdom as an association because that would be against the Company House Law that regulates all companies in the UK.
NACE has no criterion to determine when corrosion has been stopped by corrosion engineering. They make three suggestions about criteria and say that if one does not work try the others.
NACE advice and suggested guidelines are not based on science but on practices and opinions that cannot be computed because they are not mathematically or scientifically sound. This White Paper proves this beyond dispute.
"My company cannot get a contract unless I conform to NACE specifications"

THEREFORE NACE IS THE PROBLEM

Specifications are written with the cooperation of companies based in the USA or controlled by corporations or financed from the USA. Examination of these specifications reveals that they are not based on good engineering or efficiency but to favour companies that sponsor NACE.
All NACE documentation has legal disclaimers that NACE cannot be sued for wrongful advice. This might not seem significant to those living in the USA but to a scientist or engineer it means that NACE certification has no value.
If a pipeline leaks because of corrosion the consultants and engineers cannot disclaim personal responsibilty even if they followed NACE standards and specifications.



WHITE PAPER: Bringing corrosion control of pipelines and facilities into line with other engineering practices.
Pipelines are leaking all over the world causing pollution and costing their owners billions of dollars. There is no organisation that is addressing this problem using the scientific method
Scientific studies of corrosion itself are in the forefront of research and development because batteries are corrosion cells that are used for storing energy. Electrochemical reactions are studied globally and batteries are used in everything from aeroplanes to computers. The control of the energy for such purposes must be extremely accurate and this control can be extended to the control of corrosion to networks of pipelines and facilities.
The practices in corrosion control of pipelines and facilities have not changed in 50 years despite the fact that cathodic protection is the control of corrosion cells. Studying the corrosion to networks of pipelines as a global problem is a completely new approach that is addressed in this white paper.
This white paper describes the progress of corrosion control in the oil, gas and water distribution industry from the 1950s until the present day. It describes my own studies and innovations that have been avoided by established practitioners in this field of science. It describes, in detail with supporting evidence and documentation, how the science of corrosion control is being deliberately blocked by vested interests that are exploiting psuedo science.
It also sets out a path that will resolve this situation and move our service (to industry) forward while benefiting the owners and governments who are responsible for maintaining these valuable assets.
There is no point in reading just a part of this white paper because the changes necessary are in your own approach to the application of the science of corrosion studies and that is covered in the whole of this white paper.



Section 1
The Science

Everything advocated by Cathodic Protection Network science and technology is fully supported by the works of great scientists over the past decades.
  • Stephen Hawking.
  • Albert Einsten.
  • Isaac Newton .
  • Nikola Tesla.
  • Michael Faraday.
  • Niels Bohr
  • Richard Feynman
  • James Clerk Maxwell
  • Robert Boyle
  • Tim Berners-lee
  • Johannes Kepler
  • Enrico Fermi
  • Alessandro Volta
  • Ernest Rutherford

    If you do not agree with anything in this white paper you should use the scientific method to demonstrate that I am wrong.

    The Scientific Method, a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.... "criticism is the backbone of the scientific method"

    Facts


  • Corrosion is an electrochemical reaction between metal and chemicals, involving energy exchange.

  • Control the energy and we can control corrosion. Dry cell batteries are corrosion cells.

  • Corrosion is an electrochemical reaction that can now be controlled automatically by computers. This is achieved in everything from televisions to aircraft. Transformer/rectifiers used in corrosion control are called power supplies in computers and the electronics control the corrosion in the batteries exactly.

  • The whole earth is in a state of electrical flux from multiple causes and it is only by using science and computers that we can control corrosion to networks of pipelines.

  • The energy of the electrochemical reaction on pipelines is influenced by solar energy, geomagnetic energy, man-made energy, teluric energy and ambient energy.

  • All energy in the universe seeks to reach equilibrium and in doing so all energy affects all other energy.


    How to measure energy

    The first step in controlling corrosion is to measure the passage of energy exactly so that we can see the results of any intervention we make and do not have to wait for the failure of the metal.
    Dry cell batteries are corrosion cells. How do we measure the energy levels in dry cell batteries?
    We use a digital multimeter set on volts, connected between the metal cap, fitted to the carbon rod that is submerged in the acid paste contained in the zinc case to which we connect the negative lead of the voltmeter.

    If you look at this drawing of a Daniell Cell, as taught in science, you will see that we measure the energy produced by the reaction between copper and zinc as a voltage. This voltage is the difference between the reaction of the zinc to the acid and the copper to the acid. These two reactions have a different potential in terms of energy.

    In this picture the display shows - 1.23 because we have connected the red lead (positive) to the zinc case and the black, common (negative) lead to the metal cap of the carbon rod inside the case.

    A copper/copper-sulphate electrode is placed in a battery holder so that we can create measuring circuits similar to those experienced by every practicing field engineer and technician in cathodic protection work. Am I the only person in the world to have created such circuits for experimentation and demonstration?

    The meter sets zero at the common input port of the meter and all measurements on the display relate to that zero. There can be no such thing as negative energy (potential).

    This measurement is the voltage between the porous plug and the copper wire in the saturated solution of copper sulphate. Copper-sulphate is made by dissolving copper in sulphuric acid until no more can be dissolved. The reaction is then stable with no current flowing.

    If we put the copper/copper-sulphate electrode in series with the other potentials and the EMF of the metal to soil anodic interface on the pipeline we can extrapolate the reaction potential. However, this picture makes it clear that we need to know each of the potentials in series in the measuring circuit.

    However we also need to know the polarity of each potential as this picture shows the effect of inverting the electrode.

    This picture shows the simplest measurement involving a copper/copper-sulphate elecrode but shows that there can be several readings depending on the polarity of the battery and/or the electrode.

    In this picture we can see that with three sources of energy and the electrode there are many possible readings dependant on the configuration of the measuring circuit.

    Simply reversing the electrode has changed the reading from -2.26v to -3.33v.

    By reversing the polarity of the battery holder connections to the meter we have changed the readings from -3.33v to +2.28v

    We can now see that we have 4 sources of energy and the electrode. In real life field measurements these could be sunspot activity, telluric static at this location, geomagnetic effects, stray currents from man made sources and the cathodic protection system.

    Reversing the electrode changes the reading.

    Reversing the battery connections changes the readings.

    Measuring the voltage of a dry cell battery

    Measuring the voltage of two dry cell batteries in series.



    The traditional pipe-to-soil potential measurement



    The misunderstanding of the 'pipe-to-soil' measurement has resulted in the publication of papers and video presentations that explain cathodic protection wrongly.
  • A voltage is always a relative value between two potentials that cannot be zero because . Gibbs Free Energy explains that there can be no such thing as zero energy as the free energy will immediately fill the void,
  • If there can be no zero there cannot be negative potential just as there cannot be a negative house or car. There is no such thing as a negative house and anyone who says your house is worth nothing is lying, you are living in it so it has the value of a home to you.
  • A negative value is a demand of modern accountancy in which we have debt. Only in accountancy can you have negative equity so you can take six cars from five and have a negative car, OK lets see you drive to work in it! This is the lie that you are told about the 'pipe-to-soil potential measurement' and this is why you must question it.
  • It is stated in cathodic protection is that the criterion is to get a value of -0.850v in relation to a copper/copper-sulphate electrode. This is nonsense as what is really the goal is to get a positive value of the ground in relation to the zero of the pipeline. This is very different and changes everything.
  • We have to consider the known reaction of copper-sulphate to copper as a positive value in a measuring circuit so the whole of this 'criterion' is nonsense.
  • If you do not believe this you must look at the above pictures over and over again until you understand how to measure electrical energy. Then you can move on to the next stage of understanding the science of corrosion control.



    In 1978 I realised that the criteria (that we were using to determine if corrosion had been stopped) could not serve this purpose. The results of the hundreds of miles of DCVG surveys carried out by Mark Derefaka and recorded in Nigeria between 1974 and 1978 had proved that the copper/copper-sulphate electrode is NOT a stable reference potential against which we can measure the potential of the pipeline to determine the corrosion status.
    In DCVG we are measuring the difference in the potential of the ground between the two points of contacts of the electrodes.

    By stepping the two electrodes we can measure the voltage on the meter by comparison to the previous voltage as each reading has a common potential IN RELATION TO the previous voltage.

    At this stage of reasoning it is important to remember Gibbs Free Energy and that there is no such thing as NO ENERGY or zero potential. The zero on our meter is set by the meter itself when we make a measurement. We cannot measure a potential except by comparison to another potential. Everthing in science is relative and that is why Einstein and his theories of relativity were so important.

    We needed to know the exact point in time and location at which corrosion stopped and we can only know this by measuring the corrosion current itself. In order to measure the corrosion current we need to separate the anode of a corrosion cell from the cathode in a closed circuit measuring condition. All the corrosion cells that we need to investigate are on a single metalic block, the pipeline or metal structure itself and consequently the anodes cannot be separated from the cathodes.

    or 'long line corrosion'



    I began by experimenting with pieces of aluminium and steel but quickly realised that the steel was always the cathode and the aluminium the anode so the cathodic protection current would simply be added to the corrosion current in this cell and would tell us nothing.

    Further experiments using brass and steel proved very useful in predicting corrosion and the arrangement was called 'The Alexander Cell' by Tim ffrench-Mullens the founder of the Institute of Corrosion Science and Technology who was the corrosion engineer for Solus Schall, the company from whom I was contracted to Shell International as senior staff to Shell-BP Nigeria Development Corporation.

    I left Nigeria to look after my son as a single parent due to family break up but continued my studies in corrosion science and designed the very first functioning Alexander Cell.


    NACE dare not publish anything about the Alexander Cell because it is a corrosion cell and proves that much of their advice is in error.

    THEREFORE NACE IS THE PROBLEM







    I was able to take a job as a technician on the team that was developing CIPS for North Thames Gas, controlled by their corrosion engineer Mike Foskett. I explained the workings of the Alexander Cell and he notified Bob Greenwood of the Experimental Research Station of British Gas who paid me a visit on site and saw the Alexander Cell in action.


    They allowed me to use it on our surveys and included it in the reports of 100 excavations that were carried out to verify the integrity of the survey method.
    They applied the NACE/ICorr criterion to these 100 excavations and were 7% accurate and I applied the Alexander Cell results to find 97% accuracy with 3% ambiguous.
    Bob Greenwood paid for an Alexander Cell for ERS to test and the Corrosion Engineer from the South Eastern Division of British Gas bought another to test.

    The Alexander Cell is a corrosion cell that has no moving parts and the only source of energy is the corrosion reaction taking place at the anode. The version that is now in use world-wide is very simple to use and understand.
    The Alexander Cell requires a sample of the electrolyte to be isolated in the circuit and this reacts with the bright steel to create the driving current that registers on the microammeter display.
    If you want a potential measurement the probe can be placed on the anodic interface by using a Luggin capillary as we have in the scientific version of the Alexander Cell.





    During this period I made contact with Jim Gosden, the chairman of the British Standards Institute committee for CP 1021 that was the national standard for the practice of cathodic protection.
    He assessed the Alexander Cell and commented that if it was tested in a tray or contained space the flow of current across the base plates would be directional depending on the positions of the cathodic protection anode and the subject metal pipe. This might be a problem in laboratory or bench tests of the Alexander Cell with the direction of the cathodic protection current across the base electrodes in confined conditions where the electrolyte was surrounded by insulate material such as a plastic tank or tray. This error in the measurement would not occur in the field because the charges would be coming from remote earth and would not be directional.


    I then designed a version of the Alexander cell to overcome this problem and had several made by a small manufacturing company in Reading Berkshire UK. The ground contact electrodes were embedded in a plastic block in an alternating manner so that the current direction would not affect the result in the case of a demonstration in a confined space.



    The top of the Alexander Cell remained the same so that the anode could be polished before each reading, thus creating the difference in the reaction condition of the metal from the unpolished steel of the cathode.



    Jim also said that he prefered to measure potentials rather than corrosion current as this was the established norm so (much later) I worked with Adriana Castro in Brazil to make a 'scientific model' of the Alexander Cell that had a built-in Luggin Capillary arrangement that allowed the potential measurement to be made at the interface between the electrolyte (soil sample) and the anode of the corrosion cell.

    Adriana and Victor designed the way that contact with the ground through a removable base.

    Victor designed the top of the scientific Alexander Cell to include a switch to allow current reading or voltage readings to be measured while the reference electrode is in place in contact with the recepticle of the luggin capillary arrangement.

    The base can be unplugged allowing the anode electrode to be cleaned for each measurement but not the cathodic electrode that could only be washed without disturbing previous corrosion products.



    NACE dare not publish anything about the Alexander Cell because it is a corrosion cell and proves that much of their advice is in error.

    THEREFORE NACE IS THE PROBLEM




    The Alexander Cell
    A criterion that can be used in computer modelling


    The Alexander Cell gives us a definitive criterion for cathodic protection as we can measure the exact conditions in which the corrosion cell is in equilibrium without a corrosion current flowing. All the previous criteria were no more than guesses, based on the voltage between two variable potentials.

    This is very difficult to explain to people who have been taught that the ground contact electrode has a stable reaction potential that we can measure relating to the reaction potentials on the pipeline or structure. It only took me a few minutes on the first job as a CP technicion to realise that this was not true and that I was being asked to carry out a procedure and report data that was false. This was confirmed by my 'CP engineer' when I submitted the readings from my first days work and he altered them all to numbers that the client wanted to read. The client had written the specifications and was expecting results that fitted with the teachings of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers ... a commercial US organisation The Institute of Corrosion (ICorr) did not exist until some years later.

    I thought at the time that I must be missing something as it was unlikely that I was correct and the rest of the world wrong. However, I recalled the words of Albert Einstein "Question everything"... so I did.

    The availability of an accurate criterion that can be applied to any location instantly has changed everything for real scientists and screwed up the commercial objectives of the psuedo scientists who still use the 'pipe-to soil potential measurement' as the basis for their codes of practice, design standards and maintenance procedures.

    I realise that this is a very serious statement so I have included pages of questions and my answers from specialists and engineers that I have received from all over the world for the past many years. See 'Section 5 Evidence of the need for change.'

    Given a definitive criterion it is now possible to computer analyse data from the field surveys such as DCVG, CIPS and all regular monitoring data as well as that from remote monitoring stations. The Alexander Cell can be the trigger for automatic computer controlled adjustments balancing many outputs from TR's over a whole region. This will eliminate the 'interference' and 'stray currents' and also monitor any electrical disturbance to any pipeline or facility.

    This will allow the work, that I started manually in Nigeria decades ago, to come to fruition because the science and technology is now available. The only obstruction is mass cognisant dissonance.

    Cathodic Protection Network can control corrosion because we understand all of the activities necessary to control the electrical equilibrium between each location where the steel of the pipeline is in contact with the electrolyte (ground).
    My understanding of this situation started when I was Senior Corrosion Technologist for Shell-BP Development Corporation (Nigeria) and I invented the survey that is now known, and used world wide, as DCVG. At that time, in the mid 1970's, I called it the two half-cell survey because the common term for the copper/copper-sulphate ground contact electrode was a 'half-cell'. For the full account of the invention of DCVG with documentary evidence and pictures please refer to the following link:-

    Direct Current Voltage Gradient




    This invention allowed me to accurately locate coating faults on buried and submerged pipelines all over the Eastern Division and was so successful that I received visitors from Shell International and NACE to study my methodology.

    I drew the circuit drawing seen in this picture and organised survey teams to carry out DCVG surveys across the region from 1974 to 1978.

    Computers were not available at that time so I used a manual system of moving graphs on the walls of our office to display the status of all the pipelines.

    The technicians of my section ENGE 18, would return each evening and move the pins to the value of the voltages that they had noted during their days work. In this way everyone could see the effect of adjustments that were made and the work that was performed to balance the whole system of 38 TR's spread over 2,000 square miles of the area that was the Eastern Division of Shell-BP Development Corporation Nigeria.

    I used pieces of cardboard to create a schematic of the whole region over another wall in order that everyone could see the big picture that I visualised as the data was gathered and recorded.

    We used coloured pins and wrote the meter readings on the cardboard and this made it easy to explain what we were doing to engineers from other sections.

    The whole of Section ENG 18 buzzed with activity as everyone felt personally involved.

    This can now be achieved electronically using computers and monitors. This is a picture of a control system built for multi-channel television streaming in which I was involved when I was engaged in a hardware/software development company and made a model of my own vision for cathodic protection computation in my own apartment in Bracknell, Berkshire, UK.



    NACE criteria cannot be computer analysed. All their approved software does is to produce graphs of voltages between two variable potentials.

    THEREFORE NACE IS THE PROBLEM






    I have also developed hardware to assist in the develpment of the cathodic protection software. This is necessary to confirm the modelling and provide sample data to the development team.

    This hardware can replicate all of the equivalent circuits that I have ever found in 'learned journals'and scientific publications relating to cathodic protection. It can replicate both impressed current and sacrificial anode coathodic protection systems and can be used with all types of probes including the copper/copper-sulphate electrode and the Alexander Cell. It can record, store and display data streams from sources such as multimeters, data loggers and oscilloscopes.

    I have now created similar schematics to those I created on the walls of my office in Nigeria on computer using spreadsheets into which data can be added so that the corrosion status can be calculated and the location can be displayed on the monitors as the results come in.

    This is the basis of the CPN Dynamic Software Development Project that is the subject of one of the Facebook groups that I manage.
    CPN Dynamic Software Development


    Software development changes everything as it requires exact and repeatable data to be entered. This is because a computer is basicly an adding machine that carries out instructions written in code that determins paths through a matrix of on/off switches. The saying 'rubbish in rubbish out' is not correct in that the computer cannot resolve rubbish... it just comes to a halt and displays 'error'.

    For this reason the criterion that we chose to determin when corrosion has stopped must be accurately defined and consistant. Criteria based on the present standard 'pipe-to-soil potential' cannot be either accurate or consistant because it is a voltage between two variable potentials.
    Voltages recorded during DCVG and CIPS surveys cannot be computer analysed without fixing the point at which corrosion has stopped at each location. This is why I designed the Alexander Cell as I made clear in the papers I presented at the Brazilian National Corrosion conference and then at the International Corrosion Conference in Rio de Janeiro in 2009.

    I was hopeful that this would be a turning point in the understanding of applied cathodic protection but it was met with resistance by those who were making money selling a service that could not accept change.
    There are vested interests in pipelines being allowed to corrode, for example those who manufacture pipes that are used to replace and repair pipelines and those who clean up the mess, including the environmental activists who make money by claims for damages. Add to these the thieves who are actually hot tapping pipelines and 'bunkering' the oil in small tankers along every coast.
    It is now possible, using automated, computerised technology to identify the exact position of anyone trying to steal oil or sabotage a pipeline as it is happening. This is the same technology that I have developed to detect coating faults and determine the state of equilibrium between the metal and the ground (electrolyte) at every location surveyed over the past 40 years.
    This picture shows the components that make up every pipe-to-soil measurement.


    I have analysed the measurements obtained during CIPS surveys and created this series of drawings to explain the way we must extrapolate the useful data.

    These components are present in the electrical flux of all locations on earth.

    Continuing this logic in the next picture in which the cathodic protection system effect is shown in green.

    When the CP is switched off you can see the measurement that is displayed on the meter.

    The reaction potential of copper to saturated solution of copper-sulphate is constant but accounts for part of the voltageshown on the meter.

    The naturally occurring potentials in the ground are part of the reading displayed on the meter but cannot be eliminated.



    Now that we understand how to measure volts and a variety of measuring circuits we can examine exactly what the survey known as DCVG can tell us and what it cannot possibly tell us.
    The name DCVG was adopted by John Leeds some years after I devised and used it in Nigeria. It is a method of plotting ground potentials caused by impressed current cathodic protection systems and we use two copper/copper-sulphate electrodes to contact the ground. The ammeter between the two electrodes shows the direction of current flow from one point in the ground to another based on the principle that energy will pass from a higher potential to a lower potential.
    The ground itself is in a continuous state of electrical flux as shown in this drawing.
    The measuring circuit in the case of DCVG is shown in this picture.

    The following pictures show how DCVG works by measuring the potential difference (volts) between two points of contact.

    When I invented DCVG the analogue meters available were more sensitive to current than voltages because they used the current passing through the meter to pass through a coil that created an energetic field that turned a magnet against a hair spring. This consumed some of the energy to be measured so the voltage measurement was inaccurate and had to be adjusted.

    This picture show potential zonesthat are present all over the world and that can be detected using two ground contact electrodes and a digital voltmeter. Before digital voltmeters became available we had no option but to use analogue meters and it was best to use these set to measure current.
    The meter needed to have a low resistance as the differences in potential on the surface of the ground did not drive enough current to moved the needle when the meter was set to measure volts.
    In the picture below you can see the coiland magnet system to which the needle is attached to point at the measurement. The hair spring could be adjusted to position the needle as required forthe chosen measurement. In the case of the DCVG meter the zero is set in the center allowing the needle to swing either way. The needle position can be further adjusted by a small charge being added to the measuring circuit as a bios. The swing of the needle can be made more or less sensitive by adding a variable resistance to the current. In this way you can adjust the swing of the needle to suit the reading shown on the meter. The operator can chose what is seen. The adjustments and procedures to make measurements transversing the epicenter of the signal do not change the potential profile of the ground and therefore the instructions to determine 'anodic' and 'cathodic' are psuedo science.

    This fakery might have originate in a misunderstanding of the paper presented at the Australasian Corrosion Association Conference by W v Baeckmann, A Baltes and W Prinz in which they questioned the validity of the pipe-to-soil measurment



    These three scientists carried out extensive studies and were ignored by NACE and ICorr.
    One of the limitations of DCVG is the depth of cover combined with ground resistance.
    As you can see in this illustration, in one location the potential gradient caused by the CP current breaks the surface of the ground and is detectable on the meter but the other coating fault has two features that prevent it from being detected by DCVG.

    The potential gradient does not break the surface and the coating fault is anodic therefore the cp current does not pass into the pipe as it cannot overcome the energy created by the corrosion reaction of the pipe metal.
    I pointed this out in my presentation to the Institute of Corrosion Science and Technology in London withnthe following drawing backed up by demonstrations and videos.

    In the case of higher resistance ground the 'shells of resistance' are wider spaced than in low resistance ground. This is due to Kirchhoffs laws relating to resistances in parallel.

    This is born out by the fact that in remote earth there is no resistance as there are an infinite number of resistances in parallel. DC transmission systems utilise this feature as they are now using a single conductor carrying up to 10,000,000 volts and the return path is through the earth. The maximum voltage in use for AC is about 625,000 volts and these conductors have a field of inductance of 10 meters, so the pylons must be high enough to allow a very big safety margin.
    High tension conductors also induce charges into parallel metal such as fences, and the ground itself in certain circumstances. If there are coating faults on a pipeline running parallel to high tension overhead cables the AC current can be rectified into DC by the corrosion products at the anode of the corrosion cell and the charges can build up in that section of the pipeline to be discharged at the first coating fault outside of the influence of the high tension overhead cables. This is why it is important to note the configurations of everything in the area through which the pipeline passes.

    In order to demonstrate the way measurable electrical charges pass through an electrolyte I devised the 'three nails experiment' as seen in the following pictures.

    I chose nails as everyone is familiar with steel nails and know that they go rusty.

    The source of electrical energy is also familiar but most people do not realise that the battery shown in the picture is really four corrosion cells arranged in series.

    This picture shows tap water to add to the dry superabsorbant clothes that sandwich the three nails to represent the electrolyte. This is an important picture for those who have carried out DCVG and CIPS surveys over dry terraine. They understand that they get 'better readings' when they wet the ground but they do not understand the real reason why this is the case. Pure water is a very poor conductor and a dry surface does not offer surface contact between the porous plug and the granules of the ground. Pouring water on the ground dissolves the salts in the ground and fills in the gaps between the granules.
    Any cathodic protection surveyor will tell you that watering dry ground 'improves' the readings.
    What do they mean by IMPROVE?
    They mean that the readings settle down to a recognisable voltage caused by the contact area between the ground contact electrode and the grains of soil has been increased. The contact area between each of the grains of soil has also been increased as it is the salts disolved in the water that provide a path for the current of electrical charges.

    Just after watering sufficient charges will enter the meter to fill the capacitors that cause the display to show a steadier voltage.

    As more charges enter the meter the readings will steady to a readable value.

    As the 'shells of resistance' due to the water, reach remote earth there will be sufficient resistances in parallel to enable the meter to reflect the true voltage from the subject metal to remote earth.

    Remember that a voltage is a potential difference and that our measurement is the value of the charges compared between the poles of the voltmeter.

    In this next photo the 9volt battery is putting charges into the dry sand at the positive end of the electrolytic path.
    Adding water to the contact locations allows the charges to difuse easier resulting in less circuit resistance and this is reflected in the lower voltage reading between the two measuring points of contact with the electrolyte.

    As the water disolves the salts and speads it allows the charges a more conductive path until eventually it joins the four points of interest on the surface.

    However, we are dealing with a three dimensional situation and the water is drawn down by gravitation.

    Each strata becomes saturated according to its permeability.

    The conductive mass of the salty water varies layer by layer in these models as the strata in the ground vary in field circumstances.

    We can see that the total resistance can be calculated from the voltage as is done in the Wenner four pin method of ground resistance measuring.

    However, we are using an insulated space that does not replicated in true life except in the very rare occasions where a conducive area is completely surounded by a non-conductive 'mass earth'.

    Such areas are sometimes found in rain forests based in silicon sand from which the salts have been washed away. Organic pockets in valeys and depressions are best addressed by sacrificial anode systems where the charges can be made available at locations where the electrolyte is most active and conductive.

    In order to model the normal affect of resistivity it is necessary to use a conductive container which can be used as 'remote earth'. That is why I use metal flight cases for many of my demonstration models.

    The energy from the positive terminal of the battery can then pass form the left hand nail into the electrolyte but what is not widely understood is that it travels in all directions at the speed of light so the whole of the contained electrolyte is immediately charged to an equal potential.

    However, the energy passing out of the first nail into the electrolyte dissolves the metal in proportion to the current in amps, like Farraday said it will. This reaction takes time and that is the Farraday Constant. The effect can be seen in less than two hours as the rust (corrosion product) is a visible stain on the cloth.

    When we romove the covering cloth we can see the stains that the corrosion has caused. You can also see that one end of the center nail is not corroded and the right hand nailhas been cathodically protected.

    We can see that the left hand nail is the anode in this part of the system and that the center nail has been subject to stray current interference that has caused corrosion where it left the metal.
    This simple experiment provides repeatedly observable evidence that the CPN view of this science is correct.


    NACE cannot comment on this experiment and that is why I use it in support of all of my presentations. I invite anyone attending to use this demonstration to support their arguments against my own. Nobody ever has.

    THEREFORE NACE IS THE PROBLEM





    Now we can measure the voltage between two ground contact electrodes as we do in DCVG.

    We can see that altering their position we alter the voltage on the display.

    We can see that the meter determins the zero is on the common terminal, the black lead and I have taped the electrodes black and red to make this clear.

    We can see and measure the potential profile of the whole of the experimental area and that the spread of charges is not directional as some imagine.

    In some respects the distribution of charges seems to follow the inverse law of radiation but this is not the case when considering energy in the universe or on a global scale.

    We must consider the corrosion reaction as the source of energy and observe the distribution of charges from each reaction and following the distribution through Kirchhoffs laws of currents from each node, through 'shells of resistances'as described by Prinz, Baekmann and Baltz.

    Having proved the science behind DCVG we can now conclude that the copper/copper-sulphate electrode cannot be a reference potential when used in this way because it begs the question 'which one is the reference?'




    C.I.P.S


    We must now consider the science and technology behind the Close Interval Potential Survey.

    CIPS surveys, widely used in the corrosion control industry, are marketed as a method of monitoring the corrosion status of the pipeline. Exagerated claims are made for this type of survey This type of survey is widely used in the corrosion control industry but is oversold with exagerated claims.

    Pipeline owners should not engage this type of survey without understanding what they will get for their money. At present this will be a mass of data, a load of graphs and some very vague opinions on a variety of conflicting theories based on psuedo science that can be disproved in minutes.

    Pipeline operating engineers should understand the complete specifications of work and be able to analyse the data and demand that the report be a clear description of the findings and recommendations for consequent actions.

    The report should be in language that can be understood by ordinary people and especially by the operatives who carry out the survey, the landowners of the pipeline wayleave and any financial advisors, shareholders and decision makers.

    It must also be understandable by the public who are likely to be impacted by any failure of the pipeline.




    This started out in the 1980's because it had been found that the criterion for cathodic protection had failed on several pipelines and it was thought that the voltage measurements between test facilities might be below the criterion, causing the 'protection' to be misjudged.
    British Gas was concerned about this and started an audit of pipelines in the North Thames Gas region in cooperation with the research station in the northeast of the UK. The following correspondence is a small part of the discussions and meetings that were carried out over the next few years at a time when main frame computers and work stations were installed and ready to use.

    These two pages relate to the survey that I was involved in.

    We used digital multimeters set on volts to measure the potential difference between copper/copper-sulphate ground contact electrodes and a trailing 'armature wire' that was connected to the nearest cathodic protection test post.

    We recorded the displayed measurement onto this form that was then handed to the data entry technician at a workstation in our local office in Slough, Berkshire UK
    The main frame computer produced these graphs on which you can read the details of the time/date and distance between readings

    I have copies of many other forms and documents pertaining to this world first survey that was later contested in court by an american company claiming copyright ... and losing!
    Because I understood all of this, I was asked to set up the recording voltmeters to extrapolate some of the known electrical energy influences being investigated by scientists in other countries. This included the effects of sunspot activity and geomagnetic teluric activity.

    I also found other influences on the readings that we recorded and I reported on these but they were ignored by British Gas.
    I set up four analogue recording voltmeters as show in the drawing below.

    I placed ground contact electrodes as shown in the next drawing with the results shown in the .gif simulation.

    During apresent day CIPS survey we use a digital oscilloscopeor data logger usually built into an instrument that is manufactured specifically for cathodic protection monitoring/
    This drawing shows how an oscilloscope functions.


    You will notice that it makes readings at a rate of 40,000 measurements per second and shows a sample as selected on the display.
    To see a detailed explanation of the measurement (that we all make during CP work) please read the following very long linked page.
    Close Interval Potential Survey



    I can't get a job unless I have a NACE certificate

    THEREFORE NACE IS THE PROBLEM





    The criterea for cathodic protection

    A criterion is the level at which it can be said that corrosion has been controlled and the pipeline or structure can be regarded as 'protected'.
    The first criterion advised by NACE was that the pipeline should be at -0.850v in relation to a copper/copper-sulphate reference electrode place on the ground above the pipeline.
    However, pipelines failed when this criterion was reached so NACE recommended another criterion, a 300mv shift between the measurement when there was no cathodic protection and the reading when the cathodic protection system was switched on,
    This suggestion proved impossible to achieve in some cases so they invented the term 'natural potential' and said that a negative shift of -100mv would be sufficient to indicate that corrosion had been stopped.
    These criteria proved to be incorrect and in the late 1970's scientists in the Nederlands came up with the proposal that the real 'polarised potential' could be measured when the cathodic protection system was switched off, and could be seen on a plot of the voltage made by a recording voltmeter.

    I was taken to the laboratory by Bert Klinger, senior corrosion engineer of Shell International and witnessed the experiment.



    I later replicated this experiment at home. This is screen shot from a poor quality video I made at the time.

    This is the graph I was able to produce with a digital oscilloscope.



    But the graphs from CIPS surveys are nothing like this as they do not produced wave forms at all, they are graphs of trend in voltages over distance and that is entirely different. Once more the asset owners are being mislead.

    The scientists involved were looking for a way to measure the 'polarised potential' in a corrosion cell to establish when the cathodic protection system has stopped corrosion.
    They considered the Pourbaix diagrams, and had to consider that 'Gibbs Free Energy confirms that the energy of a system is minimised when it has obtained equilibrium. In simple terms this means that corrosion stops when the current stops. The Poubaix diagrams show the conditions in which the current stops.

    The Nerst-Einstein equations relate to diffusion down a concentration gradient and this is impossible to apply in soils because of infinite variability or measurability of the dilution. This sketch begs the question of where we should place the probe to make an accurate predicitve measurement.

    Following my visit to the laboratory in Holland, I was asked to try to carry out the 'off potential' in my field work in Nigeria but found that it could not possible work as the laboratory test was of a single corrosion cell measured in closed circuit, but in field work these conditions could never be met.
    I later set up experiments to show the different reactions of four corrosion cells on the same piece of pipe under the same impressed cathodic protection system.

    I arranged this experiment so that I could also examine the situation where a pipe passed through a sleeve and included an Alexander Cell to make dynamic measurementa as the experiments continued over time.

    I used a variety of multimeters and data loggers as well as a digital oscilloscope.

    Four of the multimeters measured the 'pipe-to-soil potentials' in compliance with DIN 50918 in that I used copper/copper-sulphate electrodes with a Luggin capillary to each of the coating faults on the subject test pipe. The copper-sulphate solution has not been added in this photo.

    In this picture you can see the Luggin capillaries that are made of plastic filled with inert conductive gel.

    This picture was taken two months later and you can see the four 'half-cells' with their copper/copper-sulphate solution and the copper rods. You can see the Luggin capillaries to the indiviual coating faults.

    In the next picture you can see that I have removed the test pipe for inspection.

    The next picture shows the first three coating faults still covered and the Luggin capillaries still in place.

    In this picture you can see the left hand Luggin capillary in place with the gel showing contact with the metal at the coating fault metal. This was at the interface between the electrolyte and the metal for the duration of the test. You can see that the metal was not corroded at this location.

    The next pictures are of the center left coating fault with the blue Luggin capillary.

    This picture was taken 16/06/2012 with the others following the test period.

    This shows the corrosion products after two months of reaction with tap water and silicon sand back fill and periods of subjection to impressed cathodic protection.

    This shows the corrosion products of the center right coating fault with the orange Luggin capillary.

    This picture shows the corrosion damage to the center left coating fault that would have been a leak in a pipeline and the protected coating fault on the left. The right hand coating faults are yet to be fully examined.

    Close examination of the center right coating fault.

    Showing three coating faults on the right of the test piece.

    The far right coating fault.

    The far right coating fault again,

    I took 385 pictures between 24/04/2012 and 16/06/2012 of these experiments to record the times and data shown on the meters.

    This series of experiments shows that corrosion cells on the same section of pipeline are ach different according to that electrolyte in which they are submerged.
    It also shows that impressed current cathodic protection does not polarise the whole of a pipeline or structure but that the current reaching each anode through the electrolyte at that location is the equilibrium that we must measure in order to know if we have cathodically protected the whole pipeline.
    The tray containing an unconnected dual coated test pipe, the cathodic protection anode, a fully coated test pipe and the four treated coating faults was arrenged as shown in this picture.




    Scientists have to take into consideration such equations and theories as written by Gibbs, Einstein, Nernst and others relating to diffusion down a concentration gradient and that electrons in metal energetically form bonds where continuity of energy levels is possible up to the energy maximum known as Fermi level. In contrast, electrons in Fe2and Fe3 are restricted to discrete energy levels. The effect of the charge transfer is to move the ionic and Fermi level towards each other.


    This can all be tested in controlled laboratory conditions and I have set up my own laboratory to test these matters and more,



    It is for this reason that I designed the Alexander Cell and moved towards acquiring data that can be computer analysed to get more realistic results.

    The Alexander Cell allows a measurment to be made at the interface of the anode on the metal to electrolyte as required by DIN 50918 and therefore overcomes the problem of the potential gradient in the soil. (Nernst-Einstein equations refer)
    It also overcomes the difficulty described in Prof Les Woolf's code of practice on cathodic disbondment that seems to have been ignored by Dr David Scantelbury when I visited his laboratory at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST)
    Prof Les Woolf sent me a copy of the code of practice that he had written for the British Standards Institute as recognition of the paper I had published in the scientific journal Corrosion and Corrosion control (published by Scientific Surveys Ltd) describing the Alexander Cell as a solution to the difficulty of positioning ofthe copper/copper-sulphate electrode when measuring the interface EMF as described in DIN 50918 and the laboratory arrangement known as the Daneil Cell.

    The following pictures show Prof Woolf's code of practice forcathodic disbondment testing.

    The size of the coating fault and it's distance from the reference electrode must be exact as well as the temperature andpH of the electrolyte.

    The reason for this is shown in the next drawing.

    It is clear that the recorded voltage is dependent on the distance between the reference electrode and the coating fault. When I visited Dr Scantlebury's lab I move the one reference elctrode he had among several coating faults and all the meters went ape-shit. He had it set up wrong!

    With no current flowing there is no potential gradient in the test tank. This is the case when the test coupon has a perfect coating.

    When a coating fault is made the charges flow into the metal from the impressed current transformer rectifier.

    I visited the laboratory of a coating manufacturer in South Africa and Dr Frost showed me his experiment relating to cathodic disbondment with the results shown in the next picture. This is significant as it reveals yet another lie in the teachings of NACE and ICorr relating to their advice on maximum potentials allowable before there is a danger of cathodic disbondment. They say it is -3.5 volts but Dr Frosts experiment proves that this is nonsense. The fact is that hydrogen cannot be released from the crystaline structure of the metal unless there is cathodic current passing into the metal. This cannot happen if the coating is properly stuck to the metal!

    The subject of the 'OFF potential' needs examining in detail as it is being used to waste time and money with no benefit to anyone. The so called 'off potential' is a hoax.






    There is a misunderstanding of the impact of ground resistance and I have uploaded information about this but it seems to be ignored.

    This picture shows me in Texas using an instrument that was designed to measure the resistance of the ground and I tried it out over miles of pipeline wayleave on a pipeline from Corpus Christi to Brownsville on the Rio Grande.
    Of course it failed for many reasons due to the ignorance about ground resistances and their effects on electrical energy.
    http://www.pipeline-corrosion-control.com/CorrespondenceCourse/Module08/

    We have to understand that electrical energy does not spread like water or gas, as some would have us believe, but that it distributes according to the conductance of it's environment.
    This is made clear by the three nails demonstration if carried out in a plastic tray with many sensors at different locations.

    It helps to visualise a transformer/rectifier as an electrical pump in a circuit in which the charges (the only thing we can measure) instantly equalise the whole circuit through the paths of least resistance.

    You can use two copper/copper electrodes as ground contacts and a data logger to plot this effect over your own groundbeds in your field work.


    For convenience I use the term 'remote earth' to mean the locations where the number of resistances in parallel isso greatthat itmight aswell be regarded as infinite. According to Kirchhoff this means that there is no resistance at all. This fact is being used to transmit 10 millionvolts DC using the earth as the return path and a single conductor as positive. There are even credible proposals to carry the suns energy from the Sahara Desert to central Europe using this method with a liquid helium pipeline being the single super-conductor.
    In cathodic protection work we must use this knowledge to visualise the paths of charges from anodes to cathodes. When making physical models for experimentation I use metal trays instead of plastic so that the charges reach the coating faults from all directions.
    This visualisation is confirmed in the paper that I have discussed in Module 05 of the on line course because this paper has been misunderstood asa deleiberate excuse to use the complicated expression E log I.
    In my own computer modelling I try to use the inverse law of radiation to get a more accurate representation of the data that I obtain in field work.

    This is closer to reality than any of the formulae and other suggestions I have seen. If there is better please tell us all.
    Charges passing from remote earth to a coating fault pass through shells of resistance like the skins of an onion and it is the total resistance of all of these skins that we measure in our equivalent circuit.


    This is a physical equivalent circuit but I have modelled a computer equivalent circuit that actually works and is part of the CPN Dynamic Software Development project.

    The important value to consider in the application of cathodic protection is that the resistance of the ground cannot be measured accurately enough to put into calculations. I have tried every suggestion that I have heard of and the all have glaring errors.
    When we bury a pipeline we disturb the natural 'as found' resistivity by selective backfill and by creating an addition to the watershed on any slope.
    I built this feature into the Guararema Training and Research Center in Brazil as one of it's training aids.
    Ground resistance is very important when looking for a suitable and available site for an impressed current cathodic protection system. This cannot be planned or designed before the pipeline is in place and relevant data is available.
    This is just one important reason why we must structure the whole of corrosion control differently from the present methodology.



    I can't get a job unless I have a NACE certificate

    THEREFORE NACE IS THE PROBLEM





    Section 2 Cathodic Protection Network
    Cathodic protection network is two entities in one.
    1. The human network of specialists and
    2. The actual network of steel pipelines and facilities that serve the oil, gas and water industries from production to end user.
  • The human Cathodic Protection Network is growing in numbers of followers daily. 'Followers' are people who have clicked on one of the many groups that I have set up in Facebook and Linked In.
    This means that these people have an interest in corrosion control and wish to communicate with others about this subject.
  • It is now necessary to structure 'followers' into a network of cooperating individuals who can gain personal cash flow by working together as a team to control corrosion. Each follower needs to become a Member of Cathodic Protection Network the human resource that can actually control corrosion to networks of pipelines and facilities.
  • In order to progress from 'follower' to 'member' it is necessary to have standards and codes of practice that are science-based and actually produce the required results.
  • It is necessary that all members understand the very basics of CPN science and technology as it differs from that taught by other organisations because we alone have a definitive criterion by which we can demonstrate that corrosion has stopped.
  • I have written Module 01 of the on-line course to correct some of the misunderstanding that has been promoted by the establishment and a report is required when each student has completed each module.
  • This report must express the students personal understanding and be backed up by diagrams, photos and videos that will be scrutinised by those who have already submitted similar reports.
  • If approved (and you choose to) send me £10 I will convert your report from text into HTML and make it accessible with a unique link within the website pipeline-corrosion-control.com .
  • Other organisations have suggested several criteria that you can use if the first does not work and another if the second does not work. This is not a credible code of practice in engineering. (It is like the designer of a bridge sayin "Try this and if the bridge falls down try another way to build it!")

    A good example of misdirection by the establishment is their way of teaching cathodic protection using the term 'IR drop' instead of 'voltage'.
    What is IR?....... it is electrical current in amps'I' times resistance in Ohms (R). What is that called by electricians and electrical engineers? E = IR ... Volts = Current x Ohms. IT IS VOLTS.
    There is no way to calculate the potential difference (voltage) between the interface potential and a potential measured 1 cm away from the interface (called the working electrode in the drawing) because of the following.

    Why do scientists sometimes use the expression IR instead of voltage? Because a voltage is the difference between two potentials but IR is electrical current times resistance and there are circumstances in which this cannot be measured and so the value cannot be used in calculations.
    Look at DIN50918 and see that the measurement of the corrosion reaction must be made at the very interface between the subject metal and the electrolyte because the charges resulting from that reaction diffuse into the volume of the electrolyte in the container as shown in the drawings below.



    In CP field work the so called experts and specialists thought they could take half of the apparatus show in DIN50918 and call it a half-cell. This shows ignorance of the Nernst Equations that refer to a 'half cell reaction', the cell being a corrosion cell, half of which happens at the anode and the other half at the cathode. At no stage of the traditional 'pipe-to-soil potential measurement' does the copper/copper-sulphate electrode become either the anode or cathode in the corrosion cell that we are trying to examine.

    The 'pipe-to-soil potential measurement' is not a potential measurement, it is a voltage and the half cell is not a half cell, so you guys have been fooled for at least 50 years.
    Of course this revelation is hardly likely to be welcomed by the people who teach cathodic protection theory and design as it shows that all the mentions of 'E' in their calculations cannot be given a measured value. They complain that the people in the field are not gathering the data correctly but that excuse is falling flat now that the data is gathered and transmitted dynamically by computers.
    The impact on their work is even worse when they produce graphs based on field data gathered by DCVG or CIPS because each data point is the difference between two variable potentials so there can be no base line to the graph.

    They reasoned that the Nerst equations justified this, when, in fact, these equations refer to the 'half-cell reaction' and not an item of equipment.... duh!. The NACE teaching is totally wrong and laughed at by real scientists. The graphs they are selling to their clients have a straight baseline and the value of -0.850 mv is marked in red as the criterion at which the pipeline is cathodically protected but all of this is a delusion because the real graph would look very different.

    This is a graph from the very first CIPS survey in the world plotted by a computer at the head office of North Thames Gas in 1981. They had us record 'on' and 'off' readings and plotted the difference in profile of the plot in order to try to determin where there was corrosion. After some time they realised that the plot of the difference told them nothing so they stopped printing this to avoid embarrassment.
  • Corrosion control uses the science of electrochemistry and this is why we must know and use the laws of nature to control corrosion to networks of pipelines.
  • Electrochemistry is now being studied intensely in order to develop batteries that can store electrical energy. It has been recognised that there is big money to be made out of batteries.
  • Real laws, that everybody must obey, are not made by governments or bankers but by nature itself and the study of these laws is known as natural philosophy or science.
  • Billions of dollars are spent every year in research into the laws of nature and in trying to use these laws to increase the efficiency of producing real wealth.
  • The corrosion control industry, with respect to pipelines and facilities, is costing billions to no effect because vested interests are refusing to recognise the laws of nature and the scientific method.
  • If investors do not recognise this fact they are either corrupt or stupid.




    When I returned to the UK I found that British Gas had embarked on the prototype of the CIPS known then as OLI 1 (Overline Investigation number 1) adjusted later to OLI 2, OLI 3 and then OLI 4.

    OLI4 included DCVG that I described to Mike Foskett and Bob Greenwood.
    During the time that I was with the team developing CIPS I devised a way to record the Pearson Survey that was a method of detecting coating faults on buried pipelines.
    This survey relied on an audible signal that had to be interpreted by the operator who had to adjust the receiver to an acceptable level and then listen for a drop in the signal level caused by the Doppler effect.
    I took this signal and fed it into a tape recorder and measured the sound level as a voltage that I plotted on a recording voltmeter. I marked locations by forced 'blips' as we progressed along the pipeline. We were the able to plot the whole of the Pearson Survey on maps. This was before the days of GPS.





    I was never credited with this advance but it was mentioned in some correspondence I read by NTG that said "We have developed recorded Pearson surveys and this makes it possible eliminate operator error with hard data."
    I was denied all credit for all the advances that I made and all information about the Alexander Cell was deliberately suppressed.





    Cathodic Protection Network (2)

    The metalic cathodic protection network consists of pipelines, tank farms, refineries, railways, waterways with steel pilings, jetties, offshore rigs, high tension electrical distribution overhead systems and all electrical earthing systems.
    Here are a few pictures of some of the metalic paths that are in my own personal experience.
    Pipelines

    Manifolds

    Flowstations

    Pressure reducing stations

    DC traction railways

    Deisel railways

    Tank Farms

    Overhead high tension power cables

    A typical pipeline with features
    All of these features can be observed on Google Earth maps so that the 'big picture' can be viewed and the electrical energy flux can be visualised from the data that is constantly being updated by surveys and remote monitoring stations.

    The survey teams will carry out CIPS/DCVG and Alexander Cell tests at areas chosen from historical survey results and hot spots where leaks have occurred.
    Their information will be entered dynamically into the data base that controls the dynamic map/schematic and the computer will analyse the data to identify where the current is leaving the pipelines.



    This will immediately be displayed on one of the screens in the pipeline control system. This can be integrated with other information relating to the operation and maintenance of all of the many networks in each country and globally.


    This project might be resisted on the grounds of national security, commercial secrecy or corporation intellectual property rights but the laws of nature do not recognise these man made boundaries. However, corrosion causes more damage and destruction than terrorism and the missunderstanding of corrosion control is proven to accelerate corrosion. I have documented case studies to prove this is so.





    I can't get a job unless I have a NACE certificate
    THEREFORE NACE IS THE PROBLEM



    Section 3 - Action
    How do we start this project?
  • Pipelines carry the real cash of the world ... billions of dollars worth of oil, gas and water... and when corrosion causes a pipeline to leak it impacts national budgets and even multinational corporation budgets. Therefore governments and multinational corporations must attend the starting event, everyone else do not matter because they do not make decisions on this scale.
  • The environmentalists gain publicity and the construction companies make a profit from the clean up and repair so they profit from pipeline leaks and will oppose the control of corrosion.
  • The corrosion control companies make a profit from the consultancy excuses they make when a pipeline leaks and the communities and the billionaire asset owners lose.
  • When these assets are owned by the government, the taxpayer foots the bill for leaks so the politicians do not care as they get kick backs from the lobbyists.
  • The CPN project must therefore be financed by the people who benefit from stopping leaks, so we must target billionaires and government decision makers.
  • We are facing opposition from NACE and ICorr who cannot adopt the Alexander Cell as it destroys the credibity of the advice they are giving. They will lose everything starting with credibility, if CPN succeeds.
  • NACE denies liability for any of their advice by attaching legal disclaimers and ICorr is a registered charity that has changed it's name many times. Thes two bodies are afraid of litigationand dare not challenge CPN in any court of tribunal.
  • CPN is prepared to face any challenge in any court or tribunal in the world as all of our advice is sound science backed up by documents, case studies, witness statements and practical demonstrations in court.
    CPN has no money but very valuable intellectual property that is not for sale. CPN is therefore in a win/win situation if challenged.
    We can therefore structure our work in such a way that we can each be rewarded for the effort that we put into the project. This is NOT level management or traditional hierarchal management but a new way of management made possible by the technology known as blockchain in which individual contracts can be made without third party involvement.
    For this purpose we can use international currency, local currency, Bitcoin or other crypto currencies and blockchain technology to pass rewards for work to those that earn them.
    This makes it possible for everyone to be part of this project in the activity of their choice for the reward that they require. No bosses or unions are necessary but individuals take responsibility for their input that is visible to all through the 'open ledger'.
    We will be using systems of payment that are already in use and are legal in each country in one form or another.
    While we are 'crowd funding' and 'time banking' our first cash flow we must aim at setting up the 5 day event that is fully described at the following link. This will provide the cash flow up front to structure and control the global network.
    This is a five day event for owners and top level decision makers
    relating to corrosion control of
    networks of pipelines
    and facilities

    This event will be held at locations suitable for global attention and prestige.

  • This event will change corrosion control forever.

  • Such events take time to organise and gather sufficient delegates to make an impact so we must all stir up interest at the highest level with facts about costs and the politics involved in energy and water supply.
  • This event must be very expensive to attend so that we get the right audience.
  • It must he held at a prestigious location with top level facilities and accomodation.
  • This event must be the start of the complete reorganisation of corrosion control as a service to all industries.
  • All delegates must be able to finance and initiate the activities defined in the event.
  • Each delegate should be accompaied by their advisors in the activity in which they want to invest so that the content can be scrutinised at the highest academic, political and financial level.
  • Companies can sponsor this event and have stands and exhibitions about their capabilities but these must be soundly based in science with extensive field experience with case studies supprted by real data.

    The five day seminar and master classes will held at locations identical to those of top intenational conferences.
    It must be organised and run by professional companies.
    It will be funded by the delegates in the way of a normal business project.
    The sessions will include:-
  • Introduction with demonstration.
  • Science and money.
  • Bridging the gap between sientists and engineers,
  • The history of cathodic protection.
  • The issue of the criterion for cathodic protection.
  • The history of cathodic protection instrumentation.
  • Equivalent circuits and modelling demonstration.
  • Dry cell batteries as corrosion cells.
  • Demonstration of the many criteria.
  • Actions moving forward... business plans.
  • Consultancy, research and development.
  • Software develpment.
  • Training management
  • Human resources
  • Physical activities.

    Each delegate will be given an Alexander Cell kit with instructions and software.



    The introduction is very important as it shows the scientific method that has been adhered to in the development of CPN science and technology by testing all of the theories presently advocated in the corrosion control industry.



    The first session is all about the present monetary system and how it directly affects the control of those who are engaged in fighting corrosion. This includes videos by the Bank of England and economists as well as Wall Street traders. It describes the financial structure that is developing now to allow specialist networking individuals to receive rewards they earn.
    Observations and suggestions

    At present we have very effective global corporations controlling the world and providing a comfortable life for billions of people. It is true that there are billions who are not served well by the present system and that is why we look for change.
    The present status has been achieved because money has been a common method of exchange for goods and services but the present system is now very unstable. This is because money is not related to real wealth and services.
    The following plan of action addresses this problem from the 'base of the pyramid' instead of trying to reorganise the system from the top down. In this way we do not need anyone to control us with force or money.
    Commerce has evolved beyond the old concepts of hierarchal trade and management.
    Society cannot be visualised as a 'level playing field' (as communism tries to do) or a system where everyone is equal (as socialism tries to do). The world is now a three dimensional bottomless ocean of ideas with no boundaries. We have to visualize ourselves as organisms and molecules within this ocean that are only controlled by the universal laws of nature and it is within this environment that we must structure our commercial activities.
    We must adapt to this new reality by communication with those around us to make our local environment comfortable and fun for all. We must then link local environments to the extended natural boundaries and then to the natural barriers. Finally we must network globally to make the benefits of global resources available to everyone, without damaging the local environments in which real people live. Man made boundaries are proving to be impossible to enforce and natural boundaries are being overcome by engineering.
    We must first define our own personal targets that each of us would like to achieve in life and combine these (by convention) between all the people around us. We then describe what everyone wants as our market demand. This requires local networking through all layers and can be achieved by a system similar to time banking. This does not require money so we do not need banks at this level as we are devoting our time and drawing benefits from each other.
    We now need a method of exchange between local 'time banks' to reach agreement with area time banks who have different resources available. This cannot be achieved competitively as that tends to cause hoarding and restrictive practices. Neither can it be achieved by trust as that is subject to cheating to gain personal advantage. We need a system of values and exchange of wealth and services that cannot be corrupted and this is available in virtual money using algorithms that cannot be replicated. This is like gold because it can be owned by individuals and can be transferred in the same way that our present currency is transferred. We can used the blockchain method of transfer that gets over the problem of cheating between traders.
    The internet allows for the ledger to be held by all participants and is not in anyone's control. This eliminates the need for double entry book keeping and it is up to each individual deal to be negotiated as a separate contract. Each agreement is set, acted upon and verified in the whole network and can be likened to me putting a bucket of water in a lake at one side and the buyer taking a bucket of water out of that same lake at the other side. The blockchain checks that I put the water in and that the buyer only takes the same amount of water out.

    These activities require communication throughout all the 'lakes and oceans' in the world and this is now available through the software developed and used by over a billion people subscribing to Facebook, Google, Microsoft and others.
    The coming of the World Wide Web, smart phone technology and the mass media has changed commerce and there is no going back. The written word and 'steam radio' are still important but they are not flexible enough to reflect natural changes in humanity as a whole.
    The purpose of this document is to formulate a convention that can be written into a broad agreement that is only enforceable by the willingness of those creating the wealth. In this way we can establish a guide that can help us evolve in tune with the natural laws and human emotions that form our environment.


    1. We must first enable free communication between all parties. This must be unconditional and without restriction so that we are able to recognise each person and their baggage.

    2. We must then coordinate and synchronise our activities based on the capability of everyone involved. This can be achieved using the techniques of relational data base and HTML links.

    3. We can then publish the target of each of our enterprises and invite comments that will be recorded in a folder for each person.

    4. We can then set prepare cooperative targets and goals that can be processed in the way of a business plan or algorithm.
    In this way the normal way of carrying out international business will not be disturbed but the present log jam will be removed at it's source.


    The second session is about the problem of communication between scientists and field engineers. I will explain the fact that we cannot enter the data into the scientific equations and formulae as there is no way to measure the required values. I will also explain Gibbs Free Energy and the Nernst-Einstein equations and go through a report that CPN prepared regarding corrosion noise and electronic corrosion control.



    The third session is about the history of cathodic protection and corrosion control from the 1950's until today. This is necessary to show the stages of development and the changes that have taken place. I will explain this history from a personal experience point of view with documentary evidence and photographs.



    The forth session is about measuring the corrosion we are trying to control. We must know when we have controlled corrosion and that is not possible using the methods advised at present. The present criterion is that when the pipeline leaks it means we have failed to control corrosion. This session goes through the stages of development of a criterion that is definitive enough to be computer analysed.



    The fifth session is about the history of cathodic protection instrumentation and how it has been used for commercial interests rather than scientific integrity.



    The sixth session is about equivalent circuits and includes physical modelling demonstrations.







    The seventh session is about dry cell batteries as corrosion cells. This proves that CPN technology and science is correct.



    The eighth session is demonstrations of the many criteria.





    The nineth session is about actions moving toward a CPN structure to avoid disrupting progress by vested interests, political activists, government regulation and interference, international sanctions and trade agreements, international financial and currency corruption.


    The tenth session is about consultancy, research and development involving the universities cooperating with field engineers and technicians



    The eleventh session is about software develpment and the training and support necessary for the CPN Dynamic Software Development.



    The twelth session is about training management. CPN must provide structured training to ensure that we all sing from the same song sheet. The problem at present is that nobody knows the big picture and are not involved in the whole project, just the bits for which they are paid. All they are interested in is the money they are paid. We must train everyone from the top down and the bottom up how to perceive the big picture.





    The thirteenth session is about human resources. There seems to be adequate people to carry out all of the activities required to control the corrosion that is attacking our pipelines and facilities globally and these people seem willing to travel anywhere for money. The problem is creating a structure in which these people can firstly prove their understanding and ability to act and then deploy themselves to the locations required, without ruining their personal lives.


    The forteenth session is about physical activities. These include manufacturing of specialised equipment such as Alexander Cells, survey gear and clothing more suitable for the job than is already available.

    All of this gear I have actually designed and used myself but not had manufactured. It makes the survey more comfortable and faster while having all the probes and connections to carry out pH and temperature measurments and enter them into the data stream to the control center.
    We can also arrange for the manufacture of the CPN sacrificial anode system that is replaceable without further excavation and has a controllable output in volts and current.

    This is my personal design and copyright. We can organise the manufacture of all CP and corrosion control equipment to our unique specifications.


  • There will be field visits to confirm the whole content of the five day event. This will be determined locally but in the case of Brazil will be at the training center and local pipeline sites by arrangement with Petrobras.


  • Scientific, technical, managerial and financial questions should be submitted by delegates before the event and instruments will be available to confirm the integrity of all content.


  • The evenings will be relaxed discussions of the days subjects and demonstration pieces willbe available for all delegates to try for themselves.


  • Laptop computers will be supplied to each delegate with the whole of CPN administration and intellectual property installed.


  • The whole event will be professionally video recorded and this will be added to each delegate laptop before departure.


  • This is just the start of the project as the delegates are expected to head up their teams to take the necssary action over the period of the first year.




    The CPN training center at Guararema SP Brazil

    As a result of the presentation of my paper 'A definitive criterion for cathodic protection' at the Brazilian Conference is Salvador, Valdir Dos Santos asked me to build a training center for his company to train his staff and major clients in the science and technology that I had developed.


    Valdir had a field with a BarBQ and playing field next to his company workshop and depot that he allocated to me to design and build the training, research and development center to demonstrate the features that I had described totrain and study DCVG, CIPS, and the use of the Alexander Cell that I described in my presentation as the definitive criterion for cathodic protection.

    This picture shows the final stages of construction.


    The pipeline has been backfilled and reinstated with a variety of surfaces and a sleeved section.

    This shows some of the cable connections to the pipelines etc.


    A brochure about the training center is at the following link
    CPN Training Center

    The facilities for training and research are at this link
    Facilities for research

    The functions of each of the facilities are described at the following link

    The functions of the facilities at the training and research center.

    The hardware known as 'Technotoy' will be available for the development of the software for each location under study internationally. This is because every location is unique as there are so many variables to be written into the software from data and information received from field surveys.

    The way that this hardware will be used is described at the following links.
    Technotoy stage 1

    Technotoy stage 2

    Technotoy stage 3

    Technotoy stage 4

    Technotoy stage 5

    Technotoy stage 6

    Technotoy stage 7

    The work ongoing with Technotoy and other hardware is ongoing and progressing well. There is no other comparable software development in the world at present to my knowledge.
    The survey teams, engineers, universities and consultants will be able to sychronise and coordinate their work using the global computer network. At present there is a hotch podge of competing companies and individuals getting nowhere.
    This is a global project bynecessity as it is proven that the universal laws that govern corrosion are truly international and recognise not man made borders or government legislation.
    The energy component of the corrosion reaction can only be controlled by those who understand the laws of nature and cannot be owned or restricted by any party or body. Companies and corporations cannot compete because these laws are available to anybody who observes nature. Eeverybody is a scientist and computers allow everybody to compare experiences and observations to correct false information and discard false data.
    Gone are the days when we could submit bullshit and get paid for it because it suited a small group of self appointed experts who give each other 'peer review'and exclude new approaches and ideas.




    Section 4


    Background Now


    I have started and manage the following Facebook Groups relating to Cathodic protection and corrosion control.

    https://www.facebook.com/groups/104488789588530/
    This is a public group, open to all, called Cathodic Protection Network with 2,227 members.

    https://www.facebook.com/groups/252315928171578/

    This is a private group called Cathodic Protection Network with 2063 members.

    https://www.facebook.com/groups/1403584893233570/

    This is a private group called Cathodic Protection Network Coordinators for people who would like to be involved in the coordination of activities of CPN. in their own country so that all followers of CPN science and technology can work together to create cash flow for each individual from their understanding and ability to apply the science of corrosion control.
    https://www.facebook.com/groups/CPNDynamicSoftware/

    This group is called Cathodic Protection Network Dynamic Project that is the name given to the unique software development based on the definitive criterion for cathodic protection. The Alexander Cell is a corrosion cell with which we can measure the exact state of equilibrium according to the Pourbaix Diagrams and DIN 50918 at each location.
    Cathodic Protection Network Brazil

    This is a public group called Cathodic Protection Network Brazil with 218 members
    Cathodic Protection Network India

    This is a private group with 1018 members.
    Cathodic Protection Network South Africa

    This is a private group with 344 members.
    Cathodic Protection Network Correspondence Course

    This is a private group with 973 members
    Cathodic Protection Network Nigeria

    This is a public group with 473 members
    Cathodic Protection Network Nigeria
    This is a private group with 161 members
    Cathodic Protection Network USA
    This is a public group with 244 members
    Cathodic Protection Network USA
    This is a public group with 244 members
    Electronic Corrosion Control
    This is a public group with 539 members
    Cathodic Protection Network Tunisia
    This is a public group with 200 members
    Cathodic Protection Network Algeria
    This is a public group with 18 members
    Cathodic Protection Network Bolivia

    This is a public group with 23 members


    These are some of the questions I am asked by experienced and 'qualified' practicing engineers thus proving that they do not understand the basic science behind corrosion studies and corrosion control.
  • The reason that I know this is a crucial factor in the present missunderstanding of our science is illustrated by this question and my answer from one of our Facebook groups.
    Question "In specification of cathodic protection system
    Mention the attached paragraph de
    Before installation anodes the open circuit potential should be tested and is required to be -1.18 ; -1.1( relative to reference electrode SSC)
    Can explain how to implement the required measure
    Axxxx Hxxxxx - Roger Alexander
    Plz sir
    What the difference between
    Open circuit and closed circuit potential
    From the below table they are so similar "

    My response
    "The phrase 'open circuit potential' was used by Dr Peabody when he was describing the difficulty in measuring the 'potential' of a pipeline using a copper/copper-sulphate ground contact electrode (nicknamed a half-cell). He meant that the probe was put in the ground that is open to all the electrical influences in that area.
    If you look at DIN 50918 you will see that the measurement of a 'potential' can only be made in a single corrosion cell in a closed circuit arrangement that is described by scientists as a 'potentiometer' because it allows the measurement of potentials at the interface between between the metal and the electrolyte.
    All measurements that electricians and electronic engineers make are closed circuit measurements but cathodic protection engineers were stuck with two problems.
    1. The corrosion cell on a pipeline cannot be separated into a cathode and an anode as they are on a single metallic block.
    2. The measuring probe cannot be placed at the interface where the reaction takes place without disturbing that reaction. This difficulty is similar to that described by the analogy of Schrodinger's cat in which you cannot observe if the cat is alive or dead because opening the box to have a look would kill the cat.
    Both of these difficulties are observed every time a coating fault is excavated for examination by a corrosion engineer."

    Another question and answer:-

    "Anyone here kindly explain how to calculate IR DROP in Cathodic Protection Impressed Current system???"

    My response:-
    There is no way to CALCULATE the so called 'IR drop' in cathodic protection work because it is a bullshit word made up by people who did not understand the science of electrochemistry.
    I = current R = resistance and scientists use this expression when there is no way to measure the diffusion gradient of charges from the source of energy to any particular point in which the probe is situated during the measuring procedure.
    This is made clear by the necessity to use a Luggin capillary with an inert conductive gell to the interface of the anode of a corrosion cell (in DIN50918 this is described as the working electrode)and this matter was addressed by the paper presented to the Australasian Corrosion conference in Tasmania but was conveniently ignored by NACE. Bryan Wyatt of Global Cathodic Protection made an attempt in Libya to overcome this problem by providing a coupon at the bottom of a plastic tube into which the copper/copper-sulphate electrode is placed but this is an example of misunderstanding or just plain bullshit as the coupon can be either anode or cathode or both and the voltage tells us nothing.
    The measurement we make is a voltage measurement as there is no way to make a potential measurement outside of a laboratory, except by using an Alexander Cell that Bryan Wyatt tried to by from me when he saw me demonstrate it in front of his own qualified witnesses.
    The following link is to a copy of some of the discussions that I had on Linked In the internet facility for commercial/technical discussions and you will see that I faced criticism and rudeness from some of the members of the group who had vested interests in the psuedo science they were attempting to support. This motivated me to set up experiments in which the observer is able to make their own conclusions on real evidence that is repeatable. Notonce has anyone produced any experimental evidence to refut or rebut ant of the observations I have made.

    Media discussions


    I will be uploading all of the questions and advice I have given over the years onto the pages for the countries in which the engineers were practicing at the time they had difficulties with NACE and ICorr specifications. This is a long job but the links will be added to this white paper as each is uploaded. I gave this advice for free, so it is my intellectual property and copyright to publish. Any advice for which I am paid will be the joint copyright between me and the person who paid.
    To anyone who challenges this I will see you in court at your expense.


    The following describes the background of the present system that controls the global population and dominates science itself

    This system has resulted in a very few extreme capitalists having control of billions of peoples lives. Humanity has divided itself into religions, nations and corporations that are hierarchal and the whole is controlled by the belief in tokens of value that allow trade of wealth and services.

    In the capitalist system 'ownership' of 'property' has been made so complex that a whole section of humanity is devoted to defining the rules by which society functions. (Lawyers)

    Two other sections of society are responsible for enforcing the rules by violence and extreme violence and destruction (Police and Army)

    This system is resisting all changes and this is causing political and financial disturbances globally. We are not powerful enough to have a voice in this matter but the laws of nature are absolute so we must use these laws to change the status quo.

    We can do this by structuring our network of people to control corrosion in a way that nobody else is doing. We cannot do this through the normal hierachal structure becausewe can see that this is failing. We cannot use a level management system like communism or socialism as they have failed for a variety of reasons. This is where technology comes to the rescue in the form of blockchain open ledger software that allows everyones knowledge and ability to be pooled and available to everyone else without losing it's intrinsic value. (this software is in common use with the creation of Bitcoin and other crypto-currencies).

    We now have over 4,000 followers world wide and most of them need personal cash flow. If you want to earn money through your understanding and ability you can patronise Cathodic Protection Network through https://www.patreon.com/RogerAlexander and we can create cash flow and highly paid jobs.
    However, I have not made any cash flow through my Patreon site patreon.com/RogerAlexander so I have handed over the responsibilty to the Coordinator for Nigeria Michael Walters as he is a businesman who might find a way forward through this route.

    I have considered the free market structure and that cannot work as it relies on competition and growth.


    In order to take advantage of the advance of science and technology we must coordinate and sychronise our activities instead of being competitive and secretive.
    The laws of the universe have no borders and are open to all to observe and study. (I mentioned the application of Ohms Law during a discussion about corrosion control and an enineer replied "Things do not work like that in South Africa") This sort of ignorance and stupidity is our industry's problem.



    Action Now

    Each member must now start by gathering information about all the networks of pipelines in your area and gathering all reports of corrosion failures from the local and national press.
    Each member must start a folder for CPN in your computer and send me copies of information and data as it accumulates. Get everyone in your infranet to mirror your folders and in this way we will have an open data base/ledger similar to the concept of a blockchain.

    I have reached the limit of my capacity to increase my workload and now need the following help.
  • Webmasters who are capable of editing our website in basic HTML and adding information and data as it is submitted.
  • Software engineers.
  • HR managers
  • Admin managers
  • Electrical engineers
  • Phd level accademics in material science, electrochemistry, energy and metallurgy.
  • Practicing corrosion control companies willing to upgrade to real science.
  • Field engineers
  • Design engineers and CAD specialists.
  • Legal advisors
  • Accountants
  • PR specialists.

    The structure of CPN

    I have experience working at the level of contractors technician, field engineer, and head of corrosion control section in multinational corporation and have studied many structures that are today failing.
    The problem is the inbalance of global finance that has put control in the hands of activities of which they have no knowledge or understanding.
    We must adopt a different structure without alarming the present establishment in each country.
    Our principle must be that we must all obey the laws of nature and that only these laws can produce miraculous results. The fact that we can fly in jumbo jets weighing 300 tons at heights of many miles where the temperature is -40 degrees isjust one of the miracles we have acheived by working together and sharing knowledge and understanding the universal laws of science. The fact that aeroplanes do not drop out of the sky just because they fly over a country of a different religion proves that the laws apply acros all man made borders.
    The laws of corrosion are the same all over the world and I was involved in a study in the 1980's between a Russian Accademy, a German Industrial Corporation and British Gas that studied the effects of solar energy from sun spots on the corrosion rate of pipelines.
    We found that pipelines running from north to south received induced electrical charges that ran to earth at coating faults where the pipeline deviated to eatern or western direction with the result of a 17% increase in leaks during sunspot activity.



    This can be mitigated by placing sacrificial anodes at the correct locations.



    I have addressed those who have joined the Facebook group Cathodic Protection Network Coordinators with the following

    "TO ALL CPN COORDINATORS


    CPN Coordinators are the first in the line of performers in the Cathodic Protection Network structure. They should be well versed and articulate in the knowledge, technicalities and workings of the system. They should be able to supervise projects, deliver seminars and provide answer to query that may arise from prospective membership or clients. Needless to state that over 200 people have ticked the link to join this group but what they'll need is guidance, supervision and follow up by the other coordinators.

    It is therefore imperative for the CPN Coordinator to first of all, study and understand Module 01 of my online correspondence course. This will prove that they understand the difference between CPN technology and the present design, construction and maintenace practices.

    You will have to send me your report as stated in the course. This report will be scrutinised by everybody who has submitted similar reports and if you send me £10 I will upload your report that I will convert into HTML and make accessible with a unique address within pipeline-corrosion-control.com (The £10 is to pay towards the annual amount I pay for the domain and my time to upload your information.)
    I would like you to visit our Facebook groups and gather all the names of people in your country so that you can start networking with them.

    I have no money and do not intend to borrow any to pay people working within the Pipeline Corrosion Control structure. Neither do I intend members of the network to have to borrow money in order to get work performing their skills and applying their understanding.

    We need a common adminsitration system and I suggest you should each use the Microsoft filing system of folders to record your progress and reflect the progress of all others in your local network.
    I write our own website that is structured in the same way using basic HTML coding that can be read by any computer or mobile phone in the world.

    Pipeline-Corrosion-Control.com




    Section 5


    The present system of organising people forces anyone with an idea to tell a rich person the idea and ask for a loan to commercialise that idea. The idea is set out in a 'business plan' to raise capital investment to pay for the wages and expenses of the people required to develop that plan. In this way the 'capitalist' owns the idea and all the results of the endeavours of those developing and delivering the wealth or services that result. At the end of this plan (project) the staff are paid off andtheir expertise is lost unless the capitalist owner decides to offer them a wage to maintain the system that they have created. This system creates competition between the boss and the workers in negotiating rewards and therefore a second boss (the union) is introduced with the purpose of ensuring that the workers are not ripped off. Both sides of this negotiation employ lawyers to write agreements that are enforceable by arbitration employing more lawyers.

    The 'big picture' is not being examined by any organisation and this is the void that must be filled by Cathodic Protection Network now that it has critical mass of human resources added to the advance in information technology and computer power.

    CPN progress is accelerating as the global financial system seems to be breaking down with the USA trying to dominate the world using sanctions and extreme violence that is now being faced by the powerful BRICS Alliance and partners who are trading oil and gas without the use of the US Petrodollar. This turn of events is challenging the corruption of the science of corrosion control that has dominated industry for over 60 years.

    If you would like to join in with our efforts read the whole of my website and also follow the information on line about banking and the collapse of the global finance system. We are forming a structure similar to 'workplace democracy' and 'workers ownership' that, using blockchain technology and hashgraph polling will be an entirely new system of management.

    We can now do this using survey techniques that I invented and a measurable corrosion cell (the Alexander Cell) that I devised to determine exactly when corrosion has stopped.
    The correct data must be acquired to allow computer analysis to trigger the adjustments needed in the complex networks of metal and electrolyte spread over thousands of square kilometers. This idea might have been fantasy a few years ago but so was the idea of mobile phones and satellite mapping.
    We can now map the exact location of each corrosion cell using satellite navigation and DCVG and measure the corrosion reaction at each location using the Alexander Cell.
    We can calculate the electrical energy required to equalise the reaction potential of each corrosion cell on the pipeline in the same way that a battery charger can charge multiple batteries or a computer can distribute current as required in the circuitry of a computer.

    To achieve this globally we need to work with academics who conduct research and development, design engineers and field engineers who apply the science, software corporations (such as Google) to map our data, Facebook to communicate with each other together and relational data bases such as Oracle to handle the massive data streaming that is recording changes acquired by our survey teams globally.
    We require skilled survey teams, data acquisition instruments, special probes and the software to analyse the data.
    This is a massive project that science and technology makes possible now and has never been possible in the past


    I will now upload images of documentation in support of everything in this white paper at the following link
    Documentation

    The following links are to the experiments that I carried out to repeatedly observe the results of theories and hypothoses to conform to the scientific method. There are over 1,300 files, mostly photographs of the experiments at different stages showing the displays on the meters and set up with time and date stamps. In this way I have avoided the accusation of falsifying evidence.
    Experiments 1

    Experiments 2

    Experiments 3

    Experiments 4

    Model pipeline

    Cathodic disbondment 1

    Cathodic disbondment 2

    Copper/copper-sulphate electrode

    Software development hardware

    Software development hardware

    Software development hardware

    Software development hardware

    Software development hardware

    Software development hardware

    Software development hardware

    Immediate Off experiment first shown in 1977 in the Nederlands